The Temple of Hibis is one of the most important and famous Egyptian temples; This is due to the fact that it is the only remaining temple from Persian era, and it is the oldest and largest building in the Western Desert.
The Temple of Hibis represents 4 different historical eras:
The Temple of Hibis is one of the most famous Egyptian temples as it is the only remaining temple from the Persian era, and it is the oldest and largest building in the Western Desert. The temple is located about 3 kilometres north of the New Valley Governorate. It was built of sandstone on a high place so that those who see it realize its importance as a sacred place and a center for worshiping God.
The temple was named after Hibis, a Greek term for the ancient Egyptian word hebt, which means plow. The temple was called “Hibis” due to the fertility of the land in that area. The temple was dedicated to many local deities as well as some foreign deities, such as the Syrian goddess Ishtar, who was worshiped in Egypt in one of the historical eras and united with Egyptian deities.
The Temple of Hibis represents four different historical eras, which are “Pharaonic, Persian, Ptolemaic, and Roman”. In front of the temple there is a large area that was known in the past as the Holy Lake, then the ship berth, the Roman gate, the Ptolemaic gate, the Persian gate, Nectanebo courtyard, the twelve-pillared hall, the transverse hall, and finally the Holy of Holies.
The Holy of Holies is filled with Egyptian as well as non-Egyptian deities. The Holy of Holies contains over 596 deities in an area of approximately 8 square meters, arranged in longitudinal rows from the floor to the relatively low ceiling from the rest of the temple parts.Each row contains a group of deities depicted in their own forms.
The Temple of Hibis was dedicated to the worship of the Holy Trinity, “Amon, Mut, and Khonsu” along with Isis, Osiris, and Horus, and on the upper floor of the temple was built a chapel dedicated to the worship of the god Osiris, as well as on the southwestern side of the Mammisi temple.
The Temple of Hibis includes a unique set of scenes and engraved paintings, rarely repeated in other Egyptian temples, among which are scenes of the king as he makes offerings and gifts to gods and deities, headed by the holy Thebes Trinity, the Trinity of Memphis, and the Ashmounin, in addition to many local and foreign deities, such as the goddess The Syrian Astarte. As well as the famous inscription on the western wall, which represents the god Set, as he slays the serpent Apophis, the symbol of evil, and stabs him in the head.