Karnak Temple:The complex of different religions …For hundreds of years, Karnak Temple was a small city, which the ancient Egyptians used as a place of worship. It was described by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, which is known globally as UNESCO, in 1979 AD, as the greatest human heritage.
Karnak Temple:The complex of different religions, which was built by 30 pharaohs
Karnak Temple..That archaeological temple is located on the eastern bank of the Nile, specifically in the city of Luxor, which in ancient Pharaonic times was called “Thebes”, or “the fortified city”.
Karnak began construction as a small monastery established during the reign of King Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom, and continued until the Ptolemaic era. That long period witnessed the rule of 30 pharaohs who contributed to its expansion, until its area reached 30 hectares, each piece characterized by its own characteristics that followed the rule that I witnessed, even as it included a large group of temples that formed an integrated religious complex.
In the past, the Karnak temple was known as “Bar Amun,” meaning the house of Amun, the god of the sun and fertility. In the Middle Kingdom, the area around Karnak was called “Ebit-Isut,” meaning “the most chosen,” because it was the main place of worship for the god Amun. The name was engraved on the walls of the “Senusret I” cabin, and many other names were taken, including “Nisut-Tawa”, meaning the throne of the two states, and with the advent of the Arabic language, it was distorted to read “Karnak”.
The ancient Egyptians believed that “Thebes” was the first city founded on the plateau that rose from the water at the beginning of the formation of the earth, and the firm belief at that time was that that plateau rose so the god “Ptah” could stand on it. There was a belief that Karnak was an ancient observatory in which the god “Amon” interacted directly with the people of the earth.
Karnak Temple is the second largest ancient religious complex in the world after the temple of “Angkor Wat” in Cambodia. It is also considered the second most visited historical site in Egypt, after the Pyramids of Giza. It consists of four main parts: the courtyard of “Amun-Ra”, the province of “Mut”, the province of “Monto”, and the Temple of “Amenhotep IV” that was dismantled, in addition to a few small temples and sanctuaries linking the province of Mut, the Temple of Amun-Re, and the Temple of Luxor.
The “road of rams” represents the main gate of the temple, which has two rows of statues for a group of rams. On either side, there are 1200 statues in the form of a sphinx with a ram’s head. That head symbolizes the god Amun. The Way of the Rams There is another great monument, the Luxor Temple.
Karnak includes more than one temple, including the temple of the god Amon-Ra, the god of the sun, wind, and fertility, and he is one of the main deities in the ancient Egyptian religion. There is also a province of the goddess “Mutt”, the wife of the god “Amun-Ra”, and despite the Hyksos’ sabotage of that province, only one of its obelisks is still standing as it is the tallest ancient obelisk on earth.
There is also the temple of the god “Mento”, the ancient Egyptian god of war. He was represented in the form of a man with a falcon’s head, a crown of two feathers, and between them, the disk of the sun. There is also a temple for the god “Ptah” and the god “Khonsu”, the god of youth and the moon.
And in the heart of Karnak there is the “holy lake”, that lake that is still considered one of the secrets of the pharaohs, with its steady water that does not dry out throughout the year, despite its distance from the Nile River, and despite the passage of three thousand years of its existence, since it was dug during the reign of the legendary king “Thutmose III.” The sixth pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, and so far, the strange thing is that it does not dry out despite the factors of loss, evaporation, and leakage, so that the women of Luxor have come to believe in its sanctity, and they go to it to seek blessings from it.
The length of that lake is 80 meters, while its width is 40 meters. In the past, it was surrounded by a huge wall that was destroyed with the passage of time, and the kings, priests, and servants of the ancient Egyptians used to bathe inside it before the start of any religious ceremonies or national celebrations associated with temples.
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